The Indian peninsula is one of the most rugged coastlines across the whole world. This long coastline sustains a large share of India’s export and import. There are 13 sea ports in India, from which the government of India operates 12 while a corporation runs one port that is Ennore Port.
These ports are essential to sustain and improve India’s growing economy. These ports of India play a significant role in managing the majority of India’s trade. But apart from being trade centres, these ports serve as tourist temptations as well.
There are about 13 Major Sea ports that prevails in India. They are enlisted as follows:
List Of 13 Major Sea Ports in India
1. Kandla Port, Gujarat
Kandla Port in Gujrat is one of the busiest and wealthiest Sea Port in India. Kandla port is situated about 90 km away from the Gulf of Kutch, Gujarat where there is a place called Kandla creek. It was built in the 1950s after the partition of India Pakistan happened. Therefore losing Port of Karachi.
It is the largest port in India concerning the cargo it handles. Kandla port is the first-ever Export processing port of India. This port has some major imports entering which are: textiles, grains, iron machinery, stell, petroleum, salt and chemicals.
Now, the Kandla port is one of the most profit earning Seaport in India and is the centre for importing oils and exporting grains.
2. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Maharashtra (Previously Known as Nhava Sheva)
Jawaharlal Nehru Trust Port or the Nhava Sheva is the biggest container port across whole India. It is situated in the east of Mumbai, Maharashtra. The Nhava Sheva is determined from the names of two villages that existed in that area a long time ago.
Jawaharlal Nehru Port was built on May 26, 1989. The Government of India entirely manages this seaport. This sea port handles 56% of the total containers and is the top amongst all the seaports that are built in India over time. The chairman of Nhava Sheva port is Shri Anil Diggikar.
The Jawaharlal Nehru port is bestowed the ‘Port of the year‘ at the MALA awards, 2014.
The significant exports that Jawaharlal Nehru Port sustains are textiles, carpets, boneless meat, chemical pharmaceuticals, sporting goods, textile machinery and the imports are machinery, vegetable oils, aluminium, chemicals, plastics, electrical machinery and other non-ferrous metals.
3. Mumbai Port (Largest Port of India)
Mumbai Port is situated on the mainland of West Mumbai. It is the biggest port in India. It is a natural dock and is about 10-12 metres deep. It manages approximately one-fifth of India’s foreign trade.
The Mumbai is amongst the busiest seaports prevailing in India. It plays a significant role in improving India’s economy and trade affairs. The Mumbai harbour is also well known as ‘Front Bay’, which means Gateway of India.
The port primarily concentrates in the export of liquid chemicals, chemicals, mineral oils and petroleum products and imports of leather, tobacco, machinery, chemical goods, cotton textiles and manganese.
4. Visakhapatnam Port, Andhra Pradesh
Visakhapatnam Port is situated in the East of India in Andhra Pradesh between Kolkata and Chennai port. It is surrounded by a beautiful creek and is one of the significant 13 seaports of India. It was inaugurated on December 19, 1933, by Lord Willingdon. The estimated cost of this port is about Rs. 378 lakh.
This port manages approximately 1.2 lakh tonnes of cargo each year. The Visakhapatnam port has majorly three harbours: the outer harbour, the inner harbour and the fishing harbour.
This seaport is situated on a creek where the Nerava Gedda joins the sea, and it is the most beautiful site ever. The port is said to more developed and modernized by 2016-17 and an investment of Rs. 13 crores is made for the same.
The port trades with the sale of iron ore, pellets, coal, Alumina and oil.
5. Chennai Port (Second Largest Sea Port in India)
The Chennai Port is also known as the Madras Port and is the second biggest port in whole India. It is ranked amongst the third oldest port that has started its operations in 1881. It endures on the Coromandel Coast in the Bay of Bengal. It is Tamil Nadu’s principal port and is the primary reason for its durability.
The cargo handling of the Chennai port has substantially increased from 0.5 million in 1979-78 to 100 million in 2015-16. It is unimaginable how this drastic evolution was necessary for the boom of Tamil Nadu.
There are both historic and modernized lighthouses surrounding the port, which gives it am an attractive and chic look. It is predicted that shortly the Chennai port can expand its handling for up to 140 million.
6. Mormugao Port, Goa
Goa is an exotic place and is a significant tourist attraction in India for years. Hence, the need for a port to make Goa thrive more in its trading affairs is a must. Shri I. Jayakumar is the chairman of the Mormugao port of Goa.
Mormugao is a port of Goa which is the main port of Goa as it plays vital roles to flourish Goa’s trading affairs.
It was bestowed an award for the status of a great port in the year 1963. It is the leading iron ore export across India exporting approximately a total of 50.02 million tonnes of iron ore each year.
There are four new harbours constructed in the Vasco bay to manage cargo and container traffic.
7. Port Blair Port, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Port Blair is the principal port of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and it is one of the youngest ports of India. The Government of India ranked this port as a significant seaport because of its participation in boosting up the ports of India.
It is at the 13th place amongst all the other ports. Though the Port Blair port id the youngest port in India still it is connected to the mainland of India’s through flights and ships.
8. Kolkata Port
The Kolkata port is located128 km away from the Bay of Bengal on the shore of river Hugli. This port takes care of all the goods that are coming mainly from Australia and South-East Asian countries. It is also well known as the ‘Gateway of Eastern India’.
The Kolkata Port is the only port in India that has two dock systems, namely, Kolkata docks and Haldia docks. It is one of the biggest dry docks that exists in India, and it is also the oldest port that was built by the East India company.
The Kolkata port is the most crucial centre in the trade of jute. This port exports Jute products, steel, iron ore, copper, leather, coal, tea etc. The imports are major in crude oil, paper, fertilizers, machinery and chemical products.
9. Paradip Port, Orissa
The Paradip port is top amongst the deep water major ports in india. This port is located on the coast of Orissa. The depth of the port enables it to manage massive and bulky containers. The port mainly trades with coal and iron-ore. The iron-ore from here is exported to Japan in enormous quantities.
The Paradip port’s exports are every time double the amounts of imports. In the year 2003, the Paradipport imports counted up to 6,991 thousand tonnes while the exports were about a total of 16,910 thousand tonnes. Also, this port has it’s own railway system to make transportation easy.
Currently, the Paradip port constructed an oil jetty that handled up to 8 million tonnes of petroleum products and tankers that were of 85,000 DWT. This construction makes the Paradip post even more effective and better.
10. Tuticorin Port, Tamil Nadu
Tuticorin Port is the brand new port that was recently built in Tamil Nadu. It is one of the 13 major ports of India. It is an artificial harbour that is developed 8kms in the south of the old Tuticorin port.
The port majorly trades with Sri Lanka. It has proper rail and road connections built. It is also the second biggest port in Tamil Nadu. It is also great for pearl fishery in the Bay of Bengal and well known as pearl city.
Thi seaport mainly deals with the trade of salt, coal, edible oil, sugar, food grains, petroleum products and coal. It is said that shortly this ports’ depth will increase from 10.7 metres to 12,.8 metres. It will also be built an outer harbour too.
11. Cochin Port, Kochi (Kerala)
The Cochin Port of Kerala is a major port that lies on the Arabian Sea. This port is the fastest growing and one of the largest seaports of India that is located in Kerala. The Cochin port of Kerala lies between two islands, namely Vallarpadam and Willingdon.
This port mainly exports in tea, spices and coffee. Its imports are primarily containing chemical fertilizers and mineral oil. It is the most significant centre for shipbuilding in India.
This ports imports always exceed its exports. In the year 2003, The exports were estimated to be of 2,110 thousand tonnes in contrast to the imports which were of 10,389 thousand tonnes.
12. Ennore Port, Chennai
The Ennore Port is situated 24kms away from the Chennai port. It is the 12th major port of India. This port sustains both the railway and road links for better transportation. This port majorly deals with the transportation of coal, and it was developed because of this cause.
The Tamil Nadu electricity board needed fuel for various operations. The Ennore port now deals with the managing of over 16 million tonnes of coal each year. Besides coal, this port deals with trade of petroleum products, chemicals and iron ore. Ennore Port is privately owned.
The expected probabilities for this port are to construct three multi-purpose berths and five containers.
13. Panambur Port, Mangalore, Karnataka (Also Recognized as New Mangalore Port)
The Panambur Port is situated in the coastal city of Mangalore. This port is also known as New Mangalore Port and is one of the principal seaports of India. It is well located in the northern banks of the Gurupura river.
The name of this port was kept Panambura because ‘Panam’ which means Money and ‘Ur’ which means place or village in Tulu language. It is significant to note that this port is a site which is commercially very crucial.
The former late prime minister of India, Indira Gandhi inaugurated Panambur port in the year 1974 on May 4.
Panambur port is all-weather, deep water seaport. That means this port can function efficiently throughout the year — this port serves primarily as a trading point for Karnataka and Kerala.
The significant commodities include wood pulp, timber logs, crude oil, fertilizers, petroleum products and LPG. The export commodities include granite stones, iron ore concentrates, pellets, manganese, cashew and coffee, and so on.
The Seaports of India are rich and big in their exports and imports. The ports provide India with exotic products from around the world. Each port has different trading affairs. It is a major destination for the economy of the country to grow. With the boom in trading across the ports, India’s economy and GDP raise immensely.
The ports are usually operated in all the seasons except the monsoon season. As the monsoon season makes it really hard for ships to travel across the water bodies from a source to destination.
The port offers India with a large variety of exports and imports. Each port has a special trading system and trades in its unique products. The ports cover different countries on the basis of where they are located geographically and which country is the most closer to it.
The ports offer us a beautiful tourist spot, mostly. They are developed with utmost care and modernization to handle the climate and atmosphere.
All in all, It is safe to say that by all of these 13 major seaports, India is rich in its coastline tradings and imports and exports. With the architecture of these ports it is clear that they can handle bulky as well as innumerable imports and exports each year without a doubt.